Types Of Pumpkins
We all love to eat kinds of fruits like apples, bananas, kiwis, oranges, etc., to name a few. If you ask your mom what is a fruit, she’d probably reply, they are plant products which are very nutritious and tasty. She is partly correct with her answer. A true botanist will answer your query as fruits are the ripened ovary along with the seeds of a flowering plant. The sweet and fleshy fruits like plum, prunes and apples are considered fruits by the layman. But did you know that pumpkins, squash, corn, tomato, nutmeg, allspice are all fruits! Most of them are considered as vegetables and spices as they are used for cooking. Are you aware of the term ‘false fruit’? Well, these are used for plant structures that look like fruits and are not produced from flowers.
Types Of Pumpkins
Development of Fruit
If you are wondering how do fruits develop, then let me help you solve your query. After an ovule is fertilized with pollen grains traveling through the pollen tube, the ovary begins to expand. The flower petals fall off and the ovule develops into a seed. The ovary further develops along with the other flower structures and surrounds the fruit with a fleshy mass.
The pericarp is the wall of the fruit that has developed from the ovary wall. The pericarp is divided into:
- Exocarp: It is the outer layer of the fruit wall.
- Mesocarp: The middle layer of the pericarp is the mesocarp.
- Endocarp: It is the inner most layer of the pericarp.
In case of an inferior ovary, the petals, sepals and the stamens fuse with the ovary in ripening the ovary. Fruits can be divided into three type:
- Simple Fruit: These are either dry or fleshy fruits. They develop from the ripening of a simple compound ovary with one pistil. The dry fruits are divided as dehiscent, that is, open to disperse the seeds or indehiscent, that is, not opening for discharging seeds.
- Aggregate Fruits: This fruit develops from a single flower that has numerous pistils.
- Multiple fruits: A multiple fruit is developed from a cluster of flowers known as inflorescence. Each flower develops into a fruit which club together to form a single fruit.
Let us concentrate on our main query ‘what is a berry?’ Berries are small fruits that are eaten whole and contain no objectionable seeds. The most popular pseudo-berries include the bramble fruits. These are compound fruits belonging to the genus Rubus. Non-technically speaking there are two types of berries, true berries and false berries. False berries are those which are not berries but are named berries. Let us have a look at the different kinds of berries.
Types Of Pumpkins
Different Kinds of Berries: List of Different Types of Berries
There is a long list of berries that you may have never even heard of! Let us learn more about the different kinds of berries.
List of Different Berries – Edible Berries
Few berries come under the sub-category of cane fruit, like:
- Blackberries: These are the most common types of false berries found in UK. These berries are small dark, purple berries that are found as a major ingredient in jams and pies. These berries have high Vitamin C level.
- Raspberries: These are small, tightly packed red false berries found during summer or autumn. Raspberries are used to make jams, jellies, pies and ice creams. They have high Vitamin C and manganese content. Raspberries also contain Vitamin K and magnesium.
- Cloudberry: These are small brown colored berries that ripen in autumn. They are used to make jams, juices, tarts and liqueurs. They are high in Vitamin C content and has benzoic acids that act as natural preservative.
- Boysenberry: These are deep maroon colored, glossy, large, juicy berries that are a cross between raspberries, blackberries and loganberries. They are used as pie fillings and to decorate cheesecakes and tarts.
- Marionberries: These are a cross between Chehalem and Ollallieberry cultivars. It is glossy and darker than blackberries. It is used to prepare pies, ice creams, jellies, etc.
- Tayberries: These are a cross between a blackberry and raspberry. These are very fragrant and soft berries. They are used to prepare jams.
Few berries that are sub-classified as bush fruits are given below.
- Blackcurrant: This popular flavored berry is like the red currant in appearance. It is used in jams, pies, ice creams, tarts, etc. Blackcurrant is packed with high Vitamin C content. It also has high levels of potassium, phosphorous, iron and Vitamin B5.
- Bilberry: Bilberries are edible berries that are closely related to blueberries and huckleberries. They are nearly black in color with a slight hue of purple. The pulp is red or purple in color and can stain your fingers while eating the raw fruit. These berries are very difficult to cultivate and fruits are generally collected from the wild. They are used in different jams and dishes or eaten raw.
- Blueberries: These berries are dark-blue or purple in color. These come under the false berry type. They are used in jams, pur�e, juice, pies and muffins. They contain high levels of antioxidants and can help prevent many diseases, like stomach ailments, heart degeneration and heart diseases.
- Chokecherry: Also called bitter-berry or Virginia bird cherry they are closely related to Black cherry. The berries have a very sour, astringent taste. The ripe berries have a dark color and are not very astringent in taste. The red colored berries are not yet fully ripe and may be very sour to taste. They are used to make jelly, jam and syrup. They require a lot of sugar or sweeteners for preservation as they are slightly bitter in taste.
- Gooseberries: These are small, round, oblong or teardrop shaped berries. They have a variety of colors like red, green and purple. Gooseberries are used to prepare gooseberry tarts, pies, puddings and fruit salads. Gooseberries are high in Vitamin C, Vitamin A, potassium, and manganese.
- Red Currants: These are small round red or white berries that are used in making jams, tarts and salads. They have high Vitamin C, iron, potassium and fiber content.
Berries that are classified into small fruits are given below.
- Strawberries: These are the most popular fruits eaten all over the world. They are made to prepare a number of culinary dishes like jams, ice creams, coulis , tarts, pies, milk shakes, etc. Strawberries contain high Vitamin C, manganese and folic acid levels.
- Grapes: Say grapes and you think of wine! Grapes are loaded with Vitamin A, C and B6. They also contain potassium, calcium, magnesium and folic acid. Grapes are the main ingredients for making wines.Try making homemade grape jellies, they taste excellent.
- Acai Berries: These small, round black berries are the biggest cash crops of Brazil. Acai berries are used in juices, smoothies and other beverages. These berries are known for their antioxidant properties.
- Goji Berries: These red berries are usually found dried and shriveled and are similar to red resins in appearance. They are also known as wolf berries. Wolf berries are usually cooked before consumption. They are used to prepare herbal tea, wines, rice congee, goji juice, etc. They contain 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals, 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber, etc. The list is endless!
- Cranberries: These are epigynous berries that are white when unripe and turn red on ripening. They are used to make juices, sauces, wines, etc. There are many cranberry health benefits that have been recently discovered. Cranberries contain moderate levels of Vitamin C, dietary fiber, minerals and manganese.
- Elderberries: Also called Sambucus, these small, dark berries grow in clusters. They are black to blue in color. They are used in jams, cake mix, muffins and syrups. They are a good source of anthocyanins and antioxidants.
- Huckleberries: Do not confuse the name Huckleberry with Huckleberry Finn. It is no way associated to the fictional character created by Mark Twain. This is a small round berry that looks and tastes similar to blueberries. They come in colors ranging from deep crimson to eggplant purple. They are used to make excellent jams, pies, syrups and preservatives.
- Juneberry: These red berries turn blue-black on ripening. They are similar to the size of blueberries. They are easily distinguished by the crown on the end, away from the stock. They are great to make jams, muffins, cobblers,etc.
- Juniper berries: These berries are false berries that are actually modified cones. They berries are green in color and on ripening turn to purple-black. They are used to season pork, cabbage and sauerkraut. They are also used to prepare gin.
- Lingonberries: These berries are also called cowberry, foxberry and mountain cranberry. Lingonberry is actually a false berry that is red in color. It is used to make lingonberry jam, juice, syrup, compote, sauce, etc. It is rich in Vitamin C, provitamin-A, Vitamin B (B1, B2, B3), potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous.
- Loganberries: This is a ruby-red, blackberry shaped berry. It is a very sweet, juicy berry that turns purple-red when ripe. They are used to prepare juices. Loganberries contain Vitamin C, calcium, iron, potassium, fiber and carbohydrates.
- Mulberries: These berries remind me of the popular nursery rhyme, ‘Here we go round the Mulberry bush’. This is a multiple fruit which has red, purple or black fruits. It is used to prepare pies, tarts, cordials, jams and ‘sherbats’.
- Ollaliberries: These are a cross between loganberries and youngberries. Ollaliberries look similar to blackberries. They are used to make jams, toppings for ice creams and yogurt, etc.
- Sea-buckthorn Berries: These are orange color berries that are soft, juicy and rich in oil. There are many nutritional benefits of sea buckthorn oil.They are used to make pies, jams, lotions and liquors. It has high Vitamin C, carotenoids, Vitamin E, amino acids, dietary minerals, β-sitosterol.
- Serviceberries: This berry-like pome is red to purple in color. It is a sweet berry that is used to make pies and jams.
- Chokeberries: The fruit is a small pome and has a very bitter flavor. There are two species of chokeberries, red chokeberry and black chokeberry. The purple chokeberry is a hybrid of the above two. It is used to make juices, jam, wine, etc. It is also used as a flavoring and coloring agent. It is high in Vitamin C and antioxidants.
- Bearberries: These are reddish or brown in color. Bearberries have many medicinal uses, like its consumption lowers the uric acid content in the body. It also helps bring relief from pain due to kidney stones. Herbal tea made from bearberries are used to cure nephritis.
- Nannyberry: These are seasonal drupes that are blue-black in color. These sweet berries are eaten by many birds and animals.
- Crowberry: These are dry black berries very similar to blueberry in taste and appearance. They are used as natural food dye, pie and jelly. The Native Americans use them to heal sore eyes. Crowberries have low vitamin content and high water content.
- Salmonberry: The ripen fruit has a sweet taste and it is yellow to orange-red in color. They are made into jams, candies, jellies and wines. The Native Americans eat these edible wild berries along with half-dried salmon roe, hence the name. Salmonberries are also called thimbleberries.
- Barberry: The barberry fruit is a small berry that is red or dark blue in color. Barberries are long and narrow fruits like a bar, hence the name barberry. They are used to make jams and infusions. They are rich in Vitamin C.
- Wild Rose: These are red and oval berries, also known as rosehips. They are the pomaceous fruits of rose plants. They are rich in Vitamin C content.
- Oregon Grape: These berries have a grape-like appearance and are purple or blue in color. They look as if they are covered in powder. They are known to be anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial in nature.
- Indian Plum: These berries have dark-blue or plum color and were thought to have medicinal properties by the Native Americans.
- Tomato: These common kitchen ingredients are botanically classified as a berry. Tomatoes are the most common garden fruits that are used in number of culinary delights.
This was a long list of different kinds of berries that are edible. There are other types of berries that are inedible and poisonous. Let us have a look at list of berries that are poisonous.
Types Of Pumpkins
List of Different Berries – Poisonous Berries
- Baneberry: Baneberries or bugbane are produced on a flowering plant that belongs to the family Ranunculaceae, called Actaea. The berries are the most poisonous part of the plant as they contain cardiogenic toxins. These toxins affect the cardiac muscle tissues that leads to cardiac arrect and death. The baneberries have a waxy, shiny appearance and are either red or white in color.
- Holly: These beautiful berries that are used to decorate our homes on Christmas are actually mildly toxic. When ingested they may cause vomiting and diarrhea. Holly berries are red in color.
- Privet: These mildly poisonous berries are black in color. The plants have purple colored flowers.
- Yew: These red or blue berries have poisonous seeds. In case it is necessary to consume these berries for survival, make sure you do not ingest the poisonous seeds.
- Daphne: The berries of this plant having sweet-smelling green or pink flowers are poisonous.
- Pokeberry: These dark purple berries are poisonous to humans, whereas birds are able to ingest them. They are also called pokeweed, pokebush.
- Doll’s Eyes: This berry is large and white and has a black mark that gives it the appearance of an eye. Doll’s eyes are highly poisonous berries that you should watch out for.
- Jerusalem Cherry: These poisonous berries are often confused for cherry tomatoes.
I have finally finished this Herculean task of mentioning every possible type of berries that I could find. There may be a few more different kinds of berries that I may have missed out. There are a few kinds of berries that are known to us and some that we may have never heard of. So, the next time you enjoy your berry, remember the long list of berries growing on our beautiful planet. I hope this ‘berry’ long list of different kinds of berries was useful and interesting to you.
By Batul Nafisa Baxamusa
Article Source: buzzle.com